The future of cement and fossil fuel ­during the next 100 years

What is the importance of fossil fuels in the cement industry and how will they be designed in the future? Their increasing scarcity is a threat to the cement industry over the next 100 years and will lead to the search for new resources.

The indispensible energy resources for cement manufacturing are coal and electric energy. While electric energy is used to operate the machinery and equipment, coal energy is used as thermal energy. The unit costs of a cement plant are 25-30 % for solid fuels and 20-25 % for electric energy. Both types of energies are limited and expensive resources which have to be used effectively. It is important to find alternatives to these energies for the future in terms of sustainability and competitiveness.

During the operation of rotary kilns in cement manu­facturing plants, typically, approx. 0.11 kg...

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