Secondary fuels in cement production

Summary: Alternative fuels have become a trend topic all over the world. This is partly due to the increase in price of conventional fuels and partly to the discussion about resource conservation and climate change. What contribution can the cement industry make? This report presents background facts and experience gained in the cement industry. Its purpose is not only to deal with the technological aspects but rather to explore the economic and ecological considerations. It particularly discusses the cost-effectiveness and ecological benefit of waste co-processing in cement plants and what developments are currently taking place.

1 Introduction

Western Europe is a world leader in the utilization of alternative fuels in the cement industry. The concept of “Co-Processing” was propagated as long ago as the beginning of the 1990s and within a few years was developed to the point of practical application in numerous cement plants [1, 2]. In contrast to separate refuse incineration and cement production, the utilization of alternative fuels instead of conventional fossil energy sources in the form of waste co-processing in the cement plant has proved to be an effective way of reducing the emission of such greenhouse gases as...

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