9 Schematic diagram of a multi-stage combustion system
10 Heat losses of a kiln line 
11 Regional distribution of kiln types
12 Novaflam burner
PT Semen Gresik, Tonasa 5 plant, Indonesia
Plant engineering companies supplying the cement industry have recently started talking about plants oriented to the needs of the customer. Attributes such as “tailor-made” or “standardized” seem to be a thing of the past.
In recent years there have been no really new and profound technical developments in kiln technology and none are to be expected in the cement industry in the foreseeable future. Nevertheless, there are a number of trends that have a great influence on purchasing decisions and on current technology standards:
Dry process with preheater and calciner
Most usual plant sizes between 3000–6000 tpd
Specific heat consumptions of < 725 kcal/kg cl (5-stage preheater)
Specific electrical energy requirements < 90 kWh/t
Lowest possible emission rates (NOx, SOx, dust, noise)
(57) [Problem] To efficiently reduce the concentration of NOx in an exhaust gas from a cement kiln while keeping the burned state at a good level regardless of the type...
(57) Process for operating a cement or lime plant comprising a cement (1, 11) or lime kiln (21, 31) and a calciner (2, 12), wherein heat is generated by combustion of...
(57) Process for operating a cement or lime plant comprising a cement or lime kiln and a calciner, wherein heat is generated by combustion of a fuel in the kiln and/or...
(57) An arrangement for burning lime mud into lime in a lime kiln. The lime mud flows counter-currently to flue gases from a feed end to a firing end and the fuel used...