Comparison of simulated and measured ­temperature profiles in PFR and RCE kilns

Experiments and model calculations allow the evaluation of temperature variations in different kiln types. With this information for example, conclusions on optimum settings for the kiln operation and for the refractory lining can be drawn.

Temperature profiles in the axial direction of one industrial PFR kiln and two RCE kilns were measured using thermocouples. The results show that the temperatures in the PFR kiln fluctuate with differences of about 100-300 °C, since the kiln is operated with two distinct modes of operations (burning and non-burning). The maximum temperatures measured are observed with an average value of about 1200 °C. In the burning zone of the two RCE kilns the temperatures are above the permissible temperature of 1370 °C of the type K-thermo­couples.

In all cases, there is a significant temperature...

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